Graphic design in the 20th century Early developments In the first decade of the 20th century, the experiments with pure form begun in the s continued and evolved. Although the Glasgow group received a cool reception in the British Islesdesigners in Austria and Germany were inspired by their move toward geometric structure and simplicity of form. These artists and architects rejected academic traditions and sought new modes of expression. In their exhibition posters and layouts and illustrations for the Secession magazine, Ver Sacrum, members pushed graphic design in uncharted aesthetic directions.
The Historical Performance of Music: The Search For Jung's Symbol.
As leading dictionaries point out, the word symbol put forth in this time involved an authoritative summary of a faith or doctrine, a creed.
It also centered around the connotation of something that stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship, association, convention or accidental resemblance.
A symbol came to be etched in common cultural perception as a type of visible sign for something invisible. In this way, a lion became a symbol of courage. Long before the fifteenth century, symbols and communication itself were based on ritual and communion rather than communication through transmission.
The etymology of the word symbol derives from the Late Latin word symbolum and the Late Greek word symbolon both meaning token or sign. This token was literally a token of identity, a piece, like that of a puzzle piece, fitting ultimately into a larger whole.
Once, the identity of the person offering up this token piece was verified by comparing its other half.
Perhaps this was one of the ways masculine fused with feminine, Ying with Yang. The ancient derivation of symbol also come from combining the word symballein made from the combination of syn and ballein which means to throw together.
Often, this symbolic communion involved a ritual coming together centered around a broken slate of clay. In ancient Greece it was a custom to break a slate of burned clay into several pieces and distribute them within the group. When the group reunited the pieces were fitted together Greek symbollein.
This confirmed the members belonging to the group. As the designated custodians of these legends and myths, the mystic Symbolists set out to create ritual-based dramas that would resurrect the forgotten heritage.
The endeavor became all-important to poets who emerged as a cultural force during a period of political and spiritual crisis in Russia and who sought through their art to bridge the chasm that had opened between the ruling elite and the rural populace, Church and State, adherents of theological doctrine and adherents of bourgeois morality.
Although ridiculed by their opponents one of them being Rimsky-Korsakovthe mystic Symbolists clung to the belief that communal art represented a possible solution to the problem of social disintegration.
The distinction between decadent and mystic Symbolism rests on an interpretation of the symbol as a device for suggestion and allusion on the one hand, and, on the other, as a device for disclosure and revelation.
German classical philosophers held that the nature and function of a symbol differed fundamentally from that of an allegory. It is worth referring to two famous aphorisms by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe The mystic Symbolists fantasized that their activities would precipitate the spiritual transfiguration of the world, although, inevitably, they differed on the actual date of its occurrence.
It was mystic Symbolism that eventually captured the imaginations of composers, most famously Scriabin, but the focus was less on mythic Greece and mythic Russia than in the Festspielhaus at Bayreuth.
Richard Wagner's music dramas were a colossal influence on the mystic Symbolists, chiefly for their verbal imagery the references to omnipotent swords, endless nights, and grail pilgrimagesbut also for their "symbolic" leitmotifs.
Scriabin absorbed concrete compositional ideas from the poets. Cognitive or rational perception places a veil over essential reality, which exists at the extreme fringes of consciousness and can only be intuited.
Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Prokofiev all incorporated symbolic passages into their mature operas, passages that infuse the vocal and instrumental lines with nostalgia and foreboding, euphoria and depression, and that serve to oscillate between the external and internal, material and spiritual worlds.
Debussy sought to speak directly through bird-song, the sound of the sea, the rocking of a boat by the waves, the movement of clouds in the sky, or drifting mists, to lead our thoughts to the origin of things and cause them to dwell on the ultimate questions in life.
Scriabin conceived of the musical symbol as a wholly original chord or motif. While the most illustrious of these is the mystic Symbolist chord, other sonorities, often analyzed as subsets of whole-tone and octatonic scales, can also be called symbolic.
Related by tritone, major second, or minor second, these sonorities are deployed in single or multiple registers and interact in homophonic and polyphonic contexts. Clifton Callender, in an analysis of prominent whole-tone, 'mystic', acoustic aligned with the harmonic seriesand octatonic collections in Scriabin's mature piano works, contends that these sonorities occupy a 'relational network of split relations', a 'relational network', in short, in which certain pitches are separated into upper and lower neighbor notes, the upper neighbor belonging to one referential collection, the lower neighbor belonging to another.
Interacting in a closed system of chromatic associations, these sonorities attest to the absence of functional harmonic patterns-the absence of teleological unfolding-in Scriabin's late scores.
Given that the composer interpreted functional harmonic relations as representations of the creative consciousness, their attenuation in his compositions would seem to represent and even express the dissolution of the individual Will.
It might also be argued that Scriabin's efforts to simulate or stimulate states of stasis and timelessness serve to express spiritual ascension from the physical to the astral plane-an ascension described in the Theosophical doctrine of Helene Blavatskya seminal influence on the mystic Symbolists.
Through his phantasmagoria, Scriabin substituted symbolic representation for symbolic suggestion. Having cast himself as a demiurge, a creator of spiritual gateways from one plane of reality to another, Scriabin sought to engulf listeners in his compositional system, to allow them to realize the potential of music to elevate the consciousness to a transcendental nexus.
In summary, a musical symbol oscillates between temporal and narrative layers: This concept is intertwined with several vexing questions:Graphic design - Graphic design in the 20th century: In the first decade of the 20th century, the experiments with pure form begun in the s continued and evolved.
Although the Glasgow group received a cool reception in the British Isles, designers in Austria and Germany were inspired by their move toward geometric structure and simplicity of form.
Western theatre - Theatre of the 20th century and beyond: The achievements of realism at the end of the 19th century continued to resonate through the turn of the 21st century, but the most influential innovations in early 20th-century theatre came from a vigorous reaction against realism.
Just as the visual arts exploded into a chaos of experiment and revolt, generating numerous styles and. A Survey of 19th Century Music:.
If the musical world of the nineteenth century can be said to begin with Ludwig van Beethoven () then it must end with Richard Wagner (). The Golden Bough: Abridged Edition (Classic, 20th-Century, Penguin) [James Frazer, George W.
Stocking] on pfmlures.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The landmark study of world myth and culture Draws on myths, rituals, totems and taboos of ancient European and primitive cultures throughout the world. The third edition of this monumental study of folklore. The latest in our series of translations of Russian national-conservative intellectual Egor Kholmogorov..
For the first part, see: Russians in the 2oth pfmlures.com I: Origins to WWII.. Incidentally, while counter-mainstream commenters in the West are hardly well compensated, .
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from to Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the.