See Article History Alternative Title: His belief in universal responsibility of the papacy led him to attempt the evangelization of the East and the unification of the Christian churches. Sinibaldo, the 6th of 10 children, studied at Parma under the direction of one of three uncles who were bishops and then at Bologna in the school of the most illustrious canonists of the age, where he himself became a master of canon law. He was a canon of the cathedral of Genoa and later of Parma.
Please don't forget our school! Saint Clementwhose feast is today! Shop local, or by from reputable online places that pay treat their employees well! He reigned from AD until his death in Setting the Stage for Greatness Two things are necessary when trying to understand the greatness of any one of our popes.
First, we need to know the major principles that guided his decisions and actions. Second, we must have some sense of the events that preceded his ascent to the papal throne as well as the political and social forces that were prevalent during the time of his papacy.
Who am I and of what lineage that I should take my place above kings? Peter is the Vicar of Christ; he has been established as mediator between God and man, below God but beyond man; less than God but more than man; who shall judge all and be judged by no one. From his other writings it is clear that Innocent III understood the preeminence of the spiritual over the temporal, including the predominance of the Church over the State.
Pondering this truth, thou, as a secular prince, has subjected thy realm to Him to whom all is spiritually subject. His writings show that he had a profound knowledge of scholastic philosophy as well as canon and civil law. According to all accounts, Lotario lived in conformity to his ideals and, throughout his life, his actions both private and public were pure and above reproach.
To him, the most heinous crimes were those that opposed, denied or subverted the Catholic Faith, outside of which no one at all could be saved.
Thus, it was imperative that worldly and grasping kings should be controlled, that the Holy Land should be freed from the diabolical yoke of Islam and that the immoral actions of secular leaders, the clergy, and even entire populations should be censured and punished.
Before we get too far into our subject, it is important for the reader to understand that, in the Middle Ages, it was universally accepted that to wield power, it was necessary to be a landowner 1. Due to his obvious brilliance and excellent qualities of character, Lotario was made canon of St.
He knew that theoretical knowledge and purity of life, as excellent as those qualities are, are inadequate when charged with carrying out the responsibilities and duties of the Vicar of Christ in a fallen world. The Conditions Prior to the Election of Innocent III While it is true that what we call Western Civilization was Catholic in the Middle Ages, it is also true that, then as now, men sought wealth and power inordinately and that they chafed at anything or anyone that interfered with their disordered desires.
Depending on the ability and holiness of the reigning Pope, rulers and populations grew in or strayed from the Faith in their personal lives and ambitions.
Without firm guidance from the Church, leaders became tyrants and countries allowed heresies to flourish and disorder to prevail. Internal strife, heretical notions, and rivalries between various Christian sovereigns had allowed the Muslims to advance quickly to a degree that would imperil the whole of the West.
Bernard, fought against the forces of an anti-pope, Anacletus II. It was only after St.Innocent IV, original name Sinibaldo Fieschi, (born 12th century, Genoa—died Dec. 7, , Naples), one of the great pontiffs of the Middle Ages (reigned –54), whose clash with Holy Roman emperor Frederick II formed an important chapter in the conflict between papacy and empire.
His belief in universal responsibility of the papacy led him to attempt the evangelization of the East and the . For nine tense and difficult years, the legitimate Pope, Innocent II, assisted by the great St. Bernard, fought against the forces of an anti-pope, Anacletus II. Anacletus, a member of the wealthy and corrupt Pierleone family of Italy, had, through bribery and simony, stirred up the Roman populace and paid enough cardinals to “steal the papacy” immediately after Innocent II’s legitimate election.
Henry’s son Frederick II entered Germany in to advance his claim to Otto IV’s throne and secured the crown in Despite promises to divide his inheritance, he kept the kingdom of Sicily and the empire together, and thus Early years.
In , Frederick, at the age of two, was elected king by the German princes at Frankfort.
Frederick II (26 December – 13 December ; Sicilian: Fidiricu, Italian: Federico, Latin: Federicus, German: Friedrich) was King of Sicily from , King of Germany from , King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from and King of Jerusalem from Mother: Constance, Queen of Sicily.
On Innocent’s political relations with the Emperor, see J.M. Powell, “Frederick II and the Church: A Revisionist View,” Catholic Historical Review, – ().
Among the general histories that have best elaborated the period and the work of Innocent IV is A. Fliche and V. Martin.
The election () of an antiking to Conrad IV, Frederick's younger son, plunged Germany into civil war. The war in Italy turned in Frederick's favor in , but in December he died of dysentery. Character and Legacy Frederick II was one of the most arresting figures of the Middle Ages.