Signs and Symptoms of Cancer What are signs and symptoms? Signs and symptoms are both signals of injury, illness, disease — signals that something is not right in the body. A sign is a signal that can be seen by someone else — maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional.
Picture of Colon Cancer What are the stages of colon cancer?
When a colorectal cancer is diagnosed, additional tests are performed to determine the extent of the disease. This process is called staging. Staging determines how advanced a colorectal cancer has become.
The staging for colorectal cancer ranges from stage I, the least advanced cancer, to stage IV, the most advanced cancer. Stage I colorectal cancers involve only the innermost layers of the colon or rectum. Stage II cancers exhibit greater growth and extension of tumor through the wall of the colon or rectum into adjacent structures.
Stage III colorectal cancers manifest spread of the cancer to local lymph nodes. Stage IV metastatic colorectal cancers have spread, or metastasized, to distant organs or lymph nodes far from the original tumor.
With each subsequent stage of colon cancer, the risk for recurrent cancer and death due to spread of the cancer metastasis rises.
As noted, earlier cancers have lower risks of recurrence and death. By the time an individual has stage IV colorectal cancer, the prognosis is poor. However, even in stage IV colorectal cancer depending on where the cancer has spread the opportunity for cure exists.
What are the treatments for colon cancer?
Share Your Story Surgery is the most common initial medical treatment for colorectal cancer. During surgery, the tumor, a small margin of the surrounding healthy intestine, and adjacent lymph nodes are removed. The surgeon then reconnects the healthy sections of the bowel.
In patients with rectal cancer, the rectum sometimes is permanently removed if the cancer arises too low in the rectum. The surgeon then creates an opening colostomy on the abdominal wall through which solid waste from the colon is excreted.
Specially trained nurses enterostomal therapists can help patients adjust to colostomies, and most patients with colostomies return to a normal lifestyle.
For early colon cancers, the recommended treatment is surgical removal. For most people with early stage colon cancer stage I and most stage IIsurgery alone is the only treatment required. Chemotherapy may be offered to some people with stage II cancers who have factors suggesting that their tumor may be at higher risk of recurrence.
However, once a colon cancer has spread to local lymph nodes stage IIIthe risk of the cancer returning remains high even if all visible evidence of the cancer has been removed by the surgeon. This is due to an increased likelihood that tiny cancer cells may have escaped prior to surgery and are too small to detect at that time by blood tests, scans or even direct examination.
Their presence is deduced from higher risk of recurrence of the colon cancer at a later date relapse. Drugs used for chemotherapy enter the bloodstream and attack any colon cancer cells that were shed into the blood or lymphatic systems prior to the operation, attempting to kill them before they set up shop in other organs.
This strategy, called adjuvant chemotherapyhas been proven to lower the risk of cancer recurrence and is recommended for all patients with stage III colon cancer who are healthy enough to undergo it, as well as for some higher risk stage II patients whose tumor may have been found to have obstructed or perforated the bowel wall prior to surgery.
There are several different options for adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of colon cancer.Thomas an introduction to the issue of bowel cancer F.
Tanya Chawla, the story of maggie johnson in alice walkers everyday use Assistant Professor & Staff Radiologist, University Health An analysis of the epidemiology of varsity sport Network/Mt., Steven H. Original Article. Introduction from Bowel Cancer UK A Capacity Crisis in Bowel Cancer Diagnostic Services an important opportunity to address this issue.
If this is delivered we have a real opportunity to significantly reduce mortality from and incidence of bowel cancer. UNDERSTANDING COLORECTAL CANCER Anatomically, the colon, or large intestine, seems like a single organ, a unified piece of human plumbing.
For years, the primary tool of colorectal cancer screening was a sigmoidoscope, which only views the left side of the colon. Cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer. Cancer that begins in the rectum is called rectal cancer. Most colon and rectal cancers are a type of tumor called adenocarcinoma, which is cancer of the cells that line the inside tissue of the colon and rectum.
Colorectal cancer begins when healthy cells in the lining of the colon or rectum change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer can affect the colon or the rectum, the last centimeters of the colon. Because cancer often affects both areas, it is frequently referred to as colorectal cancer. Anal cancer is an uncommon disease in which malignant cells are found in the anus.