Cultural anthropologists systematically explore topics such as technology and material culture, social organization, economies, political and legal systems, language, ideologies and religions, health and illness, and social change. Students concentrating in cultural anthropology are strongly advised to take the course in ethnographic research methods, ANTH ANTH 03 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Cultural anthropology is the study of human ways of life in the broadest possible comparative perspective.
Different cultures and traditions have different sleep practices image from Wikipedia It is quite apparent that there are significant differences in sleep patterns in different parts of the world and at different times in history. Traditions, cultural values and local conditions and environments all have a bearing on sleep practices and attitudes.
One major source of these differences is the widespread availability of artificial light, which has led to significant changes in the sleep patterns in the industrialized west since its introduction in the midth Century. It seems likely that today we sleep at least an hour less each night than was the custom even a century ago, and probably several hours less than before industrialization and electricity.
According to some studies, artificial lighting has encouraged both a later sleep onset time but also the tendency to sleep in a single concentrated burst throughout the night monophasic sleeprather than the more segmented and broken-up sleep patterns polyphasic or biphasic sleep still found in many undeveloped or nomadic societies.
During the long nights of the winter months, our prehistoric ancestors — and, according to some researchers, more recent ancestors up until the last two hundred years or so — may have broken sleep up into two or more chunks, separated by an hour or two of quiet restfulness and possibly interludes of sex.
Experiments in the s by psychiatrist Thomas Wehn, attempting to allow people to sleep in natural prehistoric conditions, purport to support this theory, although the experiments are not considered definitive. In nomadic or hunter-gatherer societies even today, it is more common for people to have this kind of biphasic sleepor sometimes even more flexible and fragmented polyphasic sleep periodssleeping on and off throughout the day or night depending on what is happening.
Cultural differences in sleeping locations on the ground, on communal platforms, in beds, etc and in sleeping partners alone, with a spouse, with immediate family, in community groups, etc in different traditions and societies also have a bearing on the timing, duration and regularity of sleep.
Co-sleeping where a baby or young child sleeps in the same bed as its mother was a very common practice up until the 19th Century even in the industrialized West, and it remains so even today in many traditional or developing countries.
Proponents of the practice claim that it facilitates bonding and breastfeeding on demand, reduces stress in both baby and mother, helps regulate the infants breathing and physiological functions, and if nothing else is a practical method of keeping both parties warm at night.
Even within the developed world, there are still significant differences in sleep patterns.
A study carried out in 10 major countries inrevealed some of these regional variations. For instance, while the average time slept by the study participants was about 7. A study of sleep among infants and toddlers indicated that sleep periods including naps varied from A daytime nap or siesta is a common habit among adults in many Mediterranean countries and elsewhere.
Spain in particular has traditionally raised the siesta almost to the level of an art-form, although, in the hustle and bustle of the modern world, it is less ubiquitous than it used to be. Naps are also common in parts of Africa and China, and the Japanese inemuri a nap taken at work in order to increase productivity and demonstrate professional commitment has a whole ideology built up around it.
The experience of Japan is a good example of the way a culture change can affect sleep patterns. In the post-War years, Japan was keen to rebuild and reassert itself and, as one way of expressing patriotism, Japanese workers were encouraged to wake early in order to start work early and often finish late as well.
The work-place nap was encouraged as a way of demonstrating commitment, even though in fact it probably degraded the quality of nighttime sleep even more.
Today, sleep is perhaps more undervalued in Japan than anywhere else, and sleep deprivation is endemic.Therefore, this report will focus on how the traditional cultural patterns of marriage have been replaced by new ideas through globalization modernization and changed the institution of marriage today.
Official Web Site of The Department of Anthropology, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Alabama; ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORIES of Cross-Cultural Analysis is that statistical cross-cultural comparisons can be used to discover traits shared between cultures and generate ideas about cultural universals.
A Glimpse Into the Culture of the Maasai The Maasai (sometimes spelled Masai) people compose one of the many diverse tribes of Africa, occupying much of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
the scientific study of traditional uses of plants and other organisms for medical purposes. Ethnopharmacology is a specialization within ethnobiology, which is an interdisciplinary field of research carried out by people trained in cultural anthropology, biology, and medicine.
Anthropology Traditional Cultures Report Essay Nukak Maku Tribe of Colombia Change is inevitable and in most cases, change is a good, and much needed thing, especially when it comes from a place of adaptation and progression in a culture.
Anthropology Traditional Cultures Report Change is inevitable and in most cases, change is a good, and much needed thing, especially when it comes from a place of adaptation and progression in a culture.