THe newest government to be formed was the Provisional Government in Russia that hoped to establish democratic and and constitucional rule. It was unstable and soon fell to a Communist dictatorship. Nov 11, After four tragic years, the war finally came to an end.
Fascism [An updated version of this article can be found at Fascism in the 2nd edition. Holding that liberalism by which he meant freedom and free markets had "reached the end of its historical function," Mussolini wrote: Fascism affirms the State as the true reality of the individual.
In economics, fascism was seen as a third way between laissez-faire capitalism and communism.
Fascist thought acknowledged the roles of private property and the profit motive as legitimate incentives for productivity—provided that they did not conflict with the interests of the state. Fascism in Italy grew out of two other movements: The syndicalists believed that economic life should be governed by groups representing the workers in various industries and crafts.
The nationalists, angered by Italy's treatment after World War I, combined the idea of class struggle with that of national struggle.
Italy was a proletarian nation, they said, and to win a greater share of the world's wealth, all of Italy's classes must unite. Mussolini was a syndicalist who turned nationalist during World War I.
From toMussolini's regime pursued a laissez-faire economic policy under the liberal finance minister Alberto De Stefani. De Stefani reduced taxes, regulations, and trade restrictions and allowed businesses to compete with one another. But his opposition to protectionism and business subsidies alienated some industrial leaders, and De Stefani was eventually forced to resign.
After Mussolini consolidated his dictatorship inItaly entered a new phase. Mussolini, like many leaders at this time, believed that economies did not operate constructively without supervision by the government. Foreshadowing events in Nazi Germany, and to some extent in New Deal America, Mussolini began a program of massive deficit spending, public works, and eventually, militarism.
Mussolini's fascism took another step at this time with the advent of the Corporative State, a supposedly pragmatic arrangement under which economic decisions were made by councils composed of workers and employers who represented trades and industries.
By this device the presumed economic rivalry between employers and employees was to be resolved, preventing the class struggle from undermining the national struggle. In the Corporative State, for example, strikes would be illegal and labor disputes would be mediated by a state agency.
Theoretically, the fascist economy was to be guided by a complex network of employer, worker, and jointly run organizations representing crafts and industries at the local, provincial, and national levels. At the summit of this network was the National Council of Corporations.
But although syndicalism and corporativism had a place in fascist ideology and were critical to building a consensus in support of the regime, the council did little to steer the economy. The real decisions were made by state agencies such as the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction Istituto per la Ricosstruzione Industriale, or IRImediating among interest groups.Fascism is a complex ideology.
There are many definitions of fascism; some people describe it as a type or set of political actions, a political philosophy or a mass movement. Fascism responded to what was perceived as the failures of both liberal and socialist ideologies. It is a kind of totalitarianism, demanding reverence for the state and its .
Global Depression Learning Goal 4: Summarize the international, political and economic causes of the global depression and explain how the US.
Political movements and social change. Aside from the Civil War, the Great Depression was the gravest crisis in American history. Just as in the Civil War, the United States appeared—at least at the start of the s—to be falling apart.
The Great Depression Aftermath of World War I. Social and Cultural Change (esp. in Europe) Veterans. Family Values emphasis to encourage population growth.
Fascism – Nazi Germany, Italy, Spain. No country was entirely successful in ended the Great Depression but World War II was.
The Great Depression- Response. Mar 05, · This feature is not available right now. Please try again later.