Later, a sting operation conducted by Tehelka showed that the entire episode had been plotted and set up by the police and all the claims against Sori and Kodopi were false. Writing On The Wall Globally, the use of torture by state agencies is criticized as it directly impinges upon the human rights of the affected individuals. Article 1 of the UNCAT defines torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering physical or mental is intentionally inflicted on a person for obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or 17 for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or any other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.
Introduction As feminist activists and funders, we know that collective action by women, girls and trans people can change — is changing — the world, even as we write. Yet, at the same time, the global political and social landscape is increasingly repressive, xenophobic, patriarchal and extremist.
In contexts of closing space for civil society, it is urgent to sustain progressive and feminist movements led by people and communities that are most marginalised and affected in repressive contexts. In the discourse on closing space, There are a few exceptions. This article, authored by a group of feminist activists engaged in social change advocacy and funders who support their work, is prompted by a desire to begin to address this gap.
The phenomenon of closing space has accelerated in recent years in societies around the world, but repressive and violent reactions to feminist change agendas are not new.
Indeed, it is by speaking out and challenging the status quo that women, girls and trans people attract the repression of conservative forces. It is also by speaking out that we have developed the tactics and strategies to resist.
As activists, we have critical expertise and recommendations to share with other activists and funders; as funders, we have learning to share about supporting this work. Methodology InMama Cash and Urgent Action Fund commissioned research with activists to explore the gendered nature of closing space.
The objective of the research is for it to become a tool for activists as they navigate restricted landscapes and also for it to contribute to philanthropic conversations on this issue. In-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen feminist activist groups led by women and trans people working in six countries where closing space is an unrelenting reality: Following individual interviews, the activists convened in February to review and validate the findings and develop shared analysis and recommendations.
The research resulted in the report Standing Firm: Closing space is characterised by state-sponsored restrictions on the fundamental rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly.
Countries throughout the world have introduced measures intended to restrict activism, such as requiring annual renewal of organisational registration.
As feminist activists, we experience these restrictions impeding the work of movement building. Moreover, a repressive, hostile climate changes the inherently interactive narrative of activism by isolating activists and organisations from each other.
In Egypt, for example, in the context of a relentless crackdown on homosexuality, government police track down and arrest people associated with LGBT projects and organisations. This drives activism underground, making organising in public virtually impossible.
To date, there has been much discussion of the trend of closing space, but efforts to understand the drivers, enablers, and impact of this global trend have not consistently applied a gendered analysis.
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Our research identified three important findings regarding the gendered nature of closing space. First, closing space for civil society is a gendered phenomenon. Significantly, the ways in which we are targeted are also gendered.
The cumulative impact of formal and informal state interventions to control civil society, as well as lack of state action to defend activists and protect rights, is having a disproportionate impact on the political voice of women and trans people.
Existing discrimination within society sharpens our experience of civil society restrictions and also makes us easy targets for repression and crackdowns.
Internet freedom continues to decline, and online activism is targeted by the state and extremist groups using threats, intimidation and sexual abuse. The application of legislation and policy makes clear that laws and policy are not neutral bureaucratic tools, but mechanisms used by the state to silence critical voices and reinforce the social status quo, in which women and trans people are politically marginalised.
Very significantly for women activists and human rights defenders, the use of sexualised violence to silence or intimidate is a virtually universal experience.
In highly patriarchal contexts, gendered attacks and gender-based violence are effective in silencing women and trans activists. Second, societies with restricted civil society space actively promote patriarchal values and traditional gender identities and roles as part of conservative, nationalist rhetoric.
In AugustLGBTI activists were outraged when the Ugandan government cancelled a week of gay pride celebrations in Kampala, a clear example of state power targeting activists who challenge patriarchal and heteronormative social structures and values.
This political framing is not new, but we see it intensifying. In our experience, closing civil society space is increasingly being supported by state-sponsored rhetoric that prescribes narrow patriarchal and heteronormative gendered behaviour and sexual identity, and maintains and enforces them through violence, threats and stigma.
In contexts of extreme stigmatisation, such as in Egypt, the arrest of LGBT activists may not even be seen by the general public as a human rights violation. Third, the history of exclusion and repression that we as women and trans people have experienced has built our political analysis and savvy, thereby equipping us to resist closing space with creativity.
As women and trans activists, we have deep experiences of being pushed to the margins in our communities. This history has allowed us to develop expertise in navigating restrictions and political marginalisation. In the current challenging context, feminist activists are developing creative solutions to new challenges, and honing our strategies to mitigate risks.
As one Russian activist who took part in the research commented: We are engaging in strategic advocacy, national and international collaboration and networking, targeted use of international legal norms and frameworks, and strategic use of the media.
In many repressive contexts, social media provides an alternative channel to remain vocal on contentious issues and to stream events that otherwise would not be covered.ABSTRACT The study assessed factors impeding group lending in the Micro finance Institutions (MFI’s), a case study of Opportunity international Savings and Loans Company.
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Information contained on this page is provided by an independent third-party content provider. Frankly and this Site make no warranties or representations in connection therewith. If you are. For instance, world opinion may have been effective in limiting collateral civilian damage by American troops in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Yemen only because the USA aspires to good relations with these countries and to continued leadership within the international community.
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