Promotion of recreational programs should focus on benefits By Amy R. Barcelona, and John T. Meldrum Promotion communicates the value of the product - it is the mouthpiece of the product so to speak. With parks and recreation in particular, many products are actually services.
Mergers[ edit ] Media mergers are a result of one media related company buying another company for control of their resources in order to increase revenues and viewership.
As information and entertainment become a major part of our culture, media companies have been creating ways to become more efficient in reaching viewers and turning a profit.
Successful media companies usually buy out other companies to make them more powerful, profitable, and able to reach a larger viewing audience. Media mergers have become more prevalent in recent years, which has people wondering about the negative effects that could be caused by media ownership becoming more concentrated.
Such negative effects that could come into play are lack of competition and diversity as well as biased political views. As they continue to eliminate their business competition through buyouts or forcing them out because they lack the resources or finances the companies left dominate the media industry and create a media oligopoly.
Media integrity refers to the ability of a media outlet to serve the public interest and democratic processmaking it resilient to institutional corruption within the media system, economy of influence, conflicting dependence and political clientelism. Such a situation enables excessive instrumentalisation of the media for particular political interests, which is subversive for the democratic role of the media.
Elimination of net neutrality[ edit ] Net neutrality is also at stake when media mergers occur. Net neutrality involves a lack of restrictions on content on the internet, however, with big businesses supporting campaigns financially they tend to have influence over political issues, which can translate into their mediums.
These big businesses that also have control over internet usage or the airwaves could possibly make the content available biased from their political stand point or they could restrict usage for conflicting political views, therefore eliminating net neutrality.
Commercially driven, ultra-powerful mass market media is primarily loyal to sponsors, i. Only a few companies representing the interests of a minority elite control the public airwaves. Healthy, market-based competition is absent, leading to slower innovation and increased prices.
Diversity of viewpoints[ edit ] It is important to elaborate upon the issue of media consolidation and its effect upon the diversity of information reaching a particular market. Critics of consolidation raise the issue of whether monopolistic or oligopolistic control of a local media market can be fully accountable and dependable in serving the public interest.
Freedom of the press and editorial independence[ edit ] On the local end, reporters have often seen their stories refused or edited beyond recognition.
An example would be the repeated refusal of networks to air "ads" from anti-war advocates to liberal groups like MoveOn. Journalists and their reports may be directly sponsored by parties who are the subject of their journalism leading to reports which actually favor the sponsor, have that appearance, or are simply a repetition of the sponsors' opinion.
Concern among academia rests in the notion that the purpose of the First Amendment to the US constitution was to encourage a free press as political agitator evidenced by the famous quote from US President Thomas Jefferson"The only security of all is in a free press.
The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed. The agitation it produces must be submitted to. It is necessary, to keep the waters pure.
As a result, the media reform movement has flourished. The five core truths have emanated from this movement that analyze and directs progressive forces in this critical juncture. Deregulation effectively removes governmental barriers to allow for the commercial exploitation of media.
Motivation for media firms to merge includes increased profit-margins, reduced risk and maintaining a competitive edge.
In contrast to this, those who support deregulation have argued that cultural trade barriers and regulations harm consumers and domestic support in the form of subsidies hinders countries to develop their own strong media firms. The opening of borders is more beneficial to countries than maintaining protectionist regulations.
The ultimate consequence of consolidation, critics argue, is a poorly informed public, restricted to a reduced array of media options that offer only information that does not harm the media oligopoly's growing range of interests. Increased concentration of media ownership can lead to the censorship of a wide range of critical thought.
Media pluralism[ edit ] The concentration of media ownership is commonly regarded as one of the crucial aspects reducing media pluralism. A high concentration of the media market increases the chances to reduce the plurality of political, cultural and social points of views.
Furthermore, media pluralism has a two-fold dimension, or rather internal and external. Internal pluralism concerns pluralism within a specific media organisation: External pluralism applies instead to the overall media landscape, for instance in terms of the number of media outlets operating in a given country.
However, in a free market economy, owners must have the capacity to decide the strategy of their company to remain competitive in the market. Also, pluralism does not mean neutrality and lack of opinion, as having an editorial line is an integral part of the role of editors provided that this line is transparent and explicit to both the staff and audience.
More diverse output and fragmented ownership will, obviously, support pluralism.Journalism, like any profession, has its own language and specialist words which practitioners need to know. The following glossary contains more than definitions of terms about journalism and the media - including new media - making it probably the biggest, most extensive journalism and media glossary available free online..
Spelling and punctuation of terms occasionally vary.
As a student of the visual arts, you will be exposed to a hands-on, product-oriented curriculum that provides you with the background of experience preferred by most graduate programs and a professional portfolio that is art-world ready.
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Sports and recreation. Bullfighting is a popular sport in Portugal and varies markedly from its Spanish counterpart.
The Portuguese bullfighter, usually dressed in an 18th-century-style coat and tricornered hat, rides a horse and does not seek to kill the bull, the horns of which may be sheathed to protect the horse.