Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
History[ edit ] an early oil field exploitation in Pennsylvania, around The earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in CE.
By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.
Petroleum was known as Burning water in Japan in the 7th century. Through Islamic Spaindistillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century.
These places were described by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those oil wells as hundreds of shiploads. When Marco Polo in visited Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, he saw oil being collected from seeps. He wrote that "on the confines toward Geirgine there is a fountain from which oil springs in great abundance, in as much as a hundred shiploads might be taken from it at one time.
Inthe first modern oil well was drilled on the Absheron Peninsula north-east of Baku, by Russian engineer F. The earliest oil wells in modern times were drilled percussively, by repeatedly raising and dropping a cable tool into the earth.
In the 20th century, cable tools were largely replaced Production functions and cost functions oil pipelines rotary drillingwhich could drill boreholes to much greater depths and in less time. Until the s, most oil wells were vertical, although lithological and mechanical imperfections cause most wells to deviate at least slightly from true vertical.
However, modern directional drilling technologies allow for strongly deviated wells which can, given sufficient depth and with the proper tools, actually become horizontal.
This is of great value as the reservoir rocks which contain hydrocarbons are usually horizontal or nearly horizontal; a horizontal wellbore placed in a production zone has more surface area in the production zone than a vertical well, resulting in a higher production rate.
The use of deviated and horizontal drilling has also made it possible to reach reservoirs several kilometers or miles away from the drilling location extended reach drillingallowing for the production of hydrocarbons located below locations that are either difficult to place a drilling rig on, environmentally sensitive, or populated.
Life of a well[ edit ] Planning[ edit ] Before a well is drilled, a geologic target is identified by a geologist or geophysicist to meet the objectives of the well.
For a production well, the target is picked to optimize production from the well and manage reservoir drainage. For an exploration or appraisal well, the target is chosen to confirm the existence of a viable hydrocarbon reservoir or to learn its extent. The target the end point of the well will be matched with a surface location the starting point of the welland a trajectory between the two will be designed.
When the well path is identified, a team of geoscientists and engineers will develop a set of presumed properties of the subsurface that will be drilled through to reach the target. These properties include pore pressurefracture gradient, wellbore stability, porositypermeabilitylithologyfaultsand clay content.
This set of assumptions is used by a well engineering team to perform the casing design and completion design for the well, and then detailed planning, where, for example, the drill bits are selected, a BHA is designed, the drilling fluid is selected, and step-by-step procedures are written to provide instruction for executing the well in a safe and cost-efficient manner.
After the hole is drilled, sections of steel pipe casingslightly smaller in diameter than the borehole, are placed in the hole. Cement may be placed between the outside of the casing and the borehole known as the annulus. The casing provides structural integrity to the newly drilled wellbore, in addition to isolating potentially dangerous high pressure zones from each other and from the surface.
With these zones safely isolated and the formation protected by the casing, the well can be drilled deeper into potentially more-unstable and violent formations with a smaller bit, and also cased with a smaller size casing. Modern wells often have two to five sets of subsequently smaller hole sizes drilled inside one another, each cemented with casing.
To drill the well Well Casing The drill bit, aided by the weight of the drill string above it, cuts into the rock. There are different types of drill bit; some cause the rock to disintegrate by compressive failure, while others shear slices off the rock as the bit turns.The oil and gas industry faces key challenges in both production and business environments.
Capital expenditures across the industry are decreasing by roughly 20 percent annually while at the same time the amount of data coming from the oil field can exceed . Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site.
The chart shows that undiluted shipments of bitumen or heavy oil by rail is very competitive with pipelines being 12% to 31% less for rail versus committed pipelines. However, when diluent is added rail becomes uncompetitive.
Comparing the diluted versus undiluted costs shows the very large negative impact the “diluent penalty” has on costs regardless of mode of transport.
Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas activity. by Stanislav Patin, translation by Elena Cascio based on "Environmental Impact of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry". Mexico Table of Contents. Although explorers drilled Mexico's first petroleum well in , oil was not discovered until after the turn of the twentieth century.
Oil and gas production handbook An introduction to oil and gas production, the capacity of the existing oil and gas pipeline network, it results in bottlenecks and low prices at the production site. Soon, oil had replaced most other fuels for motorized transport.