Introduction It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due. Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others. There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals.
If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature.
A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e.
Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review.
Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well.
On a new page, write your references. Begin with a running title; Center and bold the title. DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES: Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers.
Describes ways to get help with writing in APA Style, including links to tutorials, the APA Style Blog, and other learning resources. Home > Research Support > Citing Sources. Citing Sources. APA. Also see print version. Chicago. Also see print version or online (Duke only) version. CSE. Also see print version. MLA. Also see print version. Turabian. Also see print or Kindle versions. Writing a list of references At the end of all pieces of academic writing, you need a list of materials that you have used or referred to. This usually has a heading: references but may be bibliography or works cited depending on the conventions of the system you use.
Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. Writing Research Papers; Citing References; Citing References.
In your research paper, whenever you refer to prior research or to ideas that were generated by others, you should cite the source or sources in the text and in a References section at the end of the paper.
Term Paper: Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction. As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference .
Describes ways to get help with writing in APA Style, including links to tutorials, the APA Style Blog, and other learning resources.